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BALDWIN LECTURES 

in 

TEACHER EDUCATION 

& 

JOSEPH BALDWIN 

Pioneer Educator 

By HOMER L KNIGHT. 1957. $1.50 

JOSEPH BALDWIN 

A Dedicated Teacher Educator 

By JAMES C. MATTHEWS. 1959. $1.50 

THE HORIZON BEYOND 

By T. M. STINNETT. 1960. $1.50 

THE EDUCATION 
OF THE EMOTIONS 

By HENRY H. HILL, 1961. $1.50 



THE EDUCATION 
OF THE EMOTIONS 



The Baldwin Lecture, 1961 

THE EDUCATION 
OF THE EMOTIONS 

by 

Dr. Henry H. Hill 

President 

George Peabody College for Teachers 

Nashville, Tennessee 







Kirksville 
1961 

Ul 

ATLA . , 

WILSQM, N. a 






Copyright, 1961 

by 

Northeast Missouri State Teachers College 
Kirksville, Missouri 



Printed by Simpson Printing Company 
Kirksville, Missouri 



- 






THE 
BALDWIN LECTURESHIP 

To honor the memory of Joseph 
Baldwin, 1827-1899, the College he 
founded has established a Lectureship 
in teacher education. The study of is- 
sues arising in teacher education is a 
fitting tribute to President Baldwin, a 
pioneer in teacher education. This Lec- 
tureship has been established to per- 
petuate the spirit of Baldwin's industry 
and vision, and to contribute to the 
solution of problems in the field to 
which he devoted his life. President 
Baldwin left a precious heritage to this 
teacher-education institution he so 
nobly founded in 1867. The lectures 
are to be published annually by the 
Teachers College. 

1957 Walter H. Ryle 




HENRY H. HILL, Ph.D. 



The Education of the Emotions Page 13 

THE EDUCATION 
OF THE EMOTIONS 

This is my fourth visit to North- 
east Missouri State Teachers College. 
I recall pleasantly the commencement 
exercises of 1951 when Mr. George 
Hawkins, assistant superintendent of 
the St. Louis Public Schools, and Mrs. 
Hawkins were present as honored 
members of the class of 1901, this 
being the fiftieth anniversary of their 
graduation. At that time students were 
seated alphabetically, so Mrs. Haw- 
kins, whose maiden name begins with 
H, sat next to Mr. Hawkins. Let this 
be a warning, or perhaps a stimulus, 
to the unmarried, to be alert to the 
dangers and advantages of alpha- 
betical seating. 

It is a pleasure to join you in 
honoring Joseph Baldwin, your first 



Page 14 The Education of the Emotions 

president and a pioneer American edu- 
cator, whose fruitful years of adminis- 
tration at this institution of higher 
education helped make it an Alma 
Mater of which so many able teachers 
and school administrators can be 
proud. President J. C. Matthews of 
North Texas State College and Dr. 
Homer L. Knight of Oklahoma State 
University have in past Baldwin Lec- 
tures paid just tribute to this dis- 
tinguished man who fought against 
ignorance and for enlightment when 
the going was tougher than it is to- 
day. 

The ties between George Pea- 
body College for Teachers and North- 
east Missouri State Teachers College 
have been many. Your graduates have 
come to study on our Peabody campus 
from time to time. Some of our able 
graduates have joined your faculty, 



The Education of the Emotions Page 15 

including your president who has for 
many years been keeping everything 
shipshape in this section of the edu- 
cational world. He is one of those 
most responsible for the beautiful 
campus which has become part of the 
heritage of so many generations of 
students. 

I have selected as my subject 
"The Education of the Emotions," 
fully aware of the fact that little is 
known about how to educate the emo- 
tions along proper channels and to- 
ward worthy ends. Probably it must 
remain an art which is never fully 
mastered. 

I am indebted to one of my fa- 
vorite teachers, Dr. Thomas H. Briggs, 
professor emeritus of Teachers Col- 
lege, Columbia University, for the 
subject. I remember more of what he 
said in my classes in 1927 and 1928 



Page 16 The Education of the Emotions 

than I do of what all my other teach- 
ers have said. I wrote him during the 
recent Christmas holidays telling him 
this. His reply should be especially 
interesting to teachers and those who 
would teach. I quote in part. 

I have often envied a mason 
who at the end of a day or even 
an hour knows precisely what he 
has accomplished. A teacher sel- 
dom knows; he can only hope. 
And testimony such as yours truly 
maketh the heart glad. 

Dr. Briggs once used, as an il- 
lustration of the effect of the emo- 
tions, the story of his growing resent- 
ment one morning as he walked down 
the halls of Teachers College. He 
found himself becoming more and 
more irritated, and he could not ac- 
count for it. He had had a good break- 



The Education of the Emotions Page 17 

fast, and nobody had insulted him. 
Then it dawned on him that he was 
hearing the loud buzz of a professor 
who was lecturing in a classroom 
down the hall. He didn't like certain 
characteristics of this professor, and 
the effect of hearing his voice— the 
voice of the man he did not like— was 
"ruining the whole day for him-" 

Dr. Briggs thinks we should not 
give way to this kind of feeling, but 
that we should recognize the secondary 
effects that come upon us as a result 
of our emotions. In his excellent book 
of 1926 entitled Curriculum "Problems 
is a chapter on "Emotionalized Atti- 
tudes" which is still one of the best 
treatments of the subject. He suggests 
six approaches to the problem which 
he believes are, in varying degrees, 
effective. Granted certain recognizable 
limitations to any one of these meth- 



Page 18 The Education or the Emotions 

ods, or all six, they are worth study 
and application in 1961. 

The use of precepts is his first 
suggestion. Over the past generation 
the formal use of precepts has de- 
clined but the great teachers of the 
world have always used them. 

He second suggestion is formal 
instruction. We have such formal in- 
struction in the Sunday Schools, and 
to a degree in our private and public 
schools. 

His third suggestion is through 
incidental instruction. Perhaps this is 
less impressive but often effective. 
Most of us who have attained some 
maturity can recall incidental instruc- 
tion through the spoken word of a 
teacher or through observation that 
has affected our attitude for the better. 

His fourth suggestion is personal 
example; potentially, perhaps, the 



The Education of the Emotions Page 19 

most effective of the six. "What you 
do speaks so loudly that I cannot hear 
you." 

His fifth means is experience fol- 
lowed by satisfaction. This method is 
especially useful in the early grades 
where children quickly respond to 
judicious praise and recognition or 
quickly wilt under haphazard or point- 
less criticism. 

Briggs' sixth suggestion is what 
he calls ritual. We note this in con- 
nection with churches, lodges, and the 
military organizations, and more re- 
cently in the inauguration of our 
youngest President. Ritual can be an 
impressive method of building right 
attitudes. 

Henry Clay Lindgren's Mental 
Health in Education, published in 
1954, is an excellent book for teachers 
and mature parents. His chapter deal- 



Page 20 The Education of the Emotions 

ing with the problems of adjustment 
which every teacher faces is practical. 
We need, as we have always needed, 
professional teachers-those who learn 
their profession well and stick to it 
through good and bad, through times 
of criticism and times of praise. Lind- 
gren discusses the emotional strain on 
teachers, and suggests ways of living 
which will eliminate some of the un- 
desirable effects of this strain. It is 
the best recent book that has been 
called to my attention. 

Emotion and the Educative Pro- 
cess, a 1937 report of the Committee 
on the Relation of Emotion to the Edu- 
cative Process, was written under the 
chairmanship of Dr. Daniel Alfred 
Prescott, at that time professor of edu- 
cation in Rutgers University. The 
thoughts and suggestions, regarding 
personnel problems in education, are 



The Education of the Emotions Page 21 

particularly good. This book presents 
valuable insight into the physiology 
and psychology of what the authors 
term affective behavior. In my opin- 
ion, this book will always be one of 
the basic references for our teaching 
profession and for laymen interested 
in mental hygiene. 

The breaking in of a thorough- 
bred horse and the proper discipline 
of a teen-age boy present similar prob- 
lems. The purpose is to curb poten- 
tially bad tendencies and to encourage 
potentially good ones. The difficulty 
in both cases is to keep from breaking 
the spirit of the horse or boy. Better 
to have a less thoroughly disciplined 
horse or boy than to have one so com- 
pletely disciplined that he lacks the 
will to run. I wish that dominating 
parents of strong character, so deter- 
mined and ambitious for their sons or 



Page 22 The Education of the Emotions 

daughters, could realize this latter 
fact. 

Most of us know that learning is 
rarely single. We usually learn two 
or more things at the same time. In 
addition to learning mathematics, for 
example, we may learn to like mathe- 
matics or to dislike it, as the case may 
be. 

Born disliking buttermilk I have 
never willingly taken a glass. On the 
other hand, I like what we used to 
call egg custard pie. Once our cook 
made a buttermilk custard pie which 
looked amazingly like the egg custard 
pie which I enjoyed. Since a small 
boy's eyes are frequently bigger than 
his stomach, I took a sizeable piece. 
It had the genuine buttermilk flavor, 
and I was ready to quit after the first 
distasteful bite, but my father looked 
in my direction and told me to finish 



The Education of the Emotions Page 23 

what I had taken on my plate. I did. 
My father wanted me to learn not to 
take something on my plate unless I 
could eat it. He succeeded, but at the 
same time he taught me never, on 
any occasion or under any condition, 
to take another piece of buttermilk 
custard pie. 

During the Christmas holidays I 
noticed my son-in-law insisting that 
his nine-year-old daughter eat oysters 
whether she liked them or not. Sur- 
reptitiously, as may be permitted to 
an irresponsible grandfather, I forked 
over to my plate two or three of the 
offending oysters. Liza managed to 
satisfy her father by eating most of the 
other oysters, but I wondered if he 
might not be teaching her a perma- 
nent dislike for oysters. He was, of 
course, trying to teach her to eat and 
like everything. 



Page 24 The Education of the Emotions 

All of us recall the early experi- 
ment in conditioning by the Russian 
scientist Pavlov. He performed a 
minor operation on the dog used in 
his experiment so that the extent of 
the flow of saliva could be seen and 
measured. Just before feeding the dog 
Pavlov started a metronome to con- 
dition the dog to the fact that when 
he heard the metronome he was going 
to be fed. The flow of saliva was in- 
creased. Eventually the sound of the 
metronome produced the same reac- 
tion without the use of food. 

Pavlov believed that there were 
"unconditioned" or inborn reflexes in 
every animal, and by inference in hu- 
man beings, but that conditioned re- 
flexes became in time just as much 
a part of the physiological activity of 
living beings. For example, painful 
childhood experiences may result in 



The Education of the Emotions Page 25 

conditioned refllexes which are as im- 
portant as inborn refllexes. 

Both the German Nazis and the 
Russian Communists have educated or 
trained the emotions to bring about 
what we regard as terrible results. We 
believe in the education of free men 
and do not, therefore, believe in con- 
ditioning the emotions so completely 
that there is subservience or spineless 
conformity. Sometimes we are very 
severe on our rebels who refuse to 
conform to our inherited and cher- 
ished ideals and notions and, in some 
cases, prejudices. In most cases I sup- 
pose we are properly indignant; but, 
if we avoid the condition which the 
Nazis and the Communists deliber- 
ately sought, we should continue to 
give a hearing to honest and sincere 
nonconformists. 

Peter Ustinov in his recent novel, 



Page 26 The Education of the Emotions 

The Loser, provides in Hans Winter- 
schild a striking illustration of the 
Nazi plan of educating the emotions. 
The German teachers and leaders did 
a good job of emotional conditioning 
on Hans. After serving on the Russian 
front for many months during World 
War II, Hans was transferred to a 
little town in Italy where he willingly 
ordered shot down anybody or any- 
thing- dogs, geese, grandmothers, 
babies- that had shown resistance to 
the German soldiers quartered there. 
Thoroughly conditioned by the Nazis, 
he felt no guilt and no emotion after 
his cruel deed, then or later. 

Perhaps you have read Eich- 
mann's story in a recent issue of Life. 
Eichmann was immediately respon- 
sible for the cruel treatment and even- 
tual death through shooting or in the 
gas chambers of tens of thousands of 



The Education of the Emotions Page 27 

Jews during World War II. He tells 
the story without remorse or guilt and 
apparently with a touch of pride. In 
fact, one may suspect that he wanted 
to be discovered in his hiding place in 
Argentina. 

Both Winterschild and Eichmann 
are illustrations of successful condi- 
tioning for evil purposes. 

A Baptist friend tells of an old- 
fashioned Baptist sect officially known 
as the "Two Seed in the Spirit Pre- 
destinarian Baptists." This particular 
group believed that a person is born 
with two seeds in him, one good seed 
and one bad seed. Members of this 
group believed that one seed was pre- 
destined to achieve dominance and 
thus determine the nature and be- 
havior of the individual. 

Whether we believe in this par- 
ticular tenet, or in original sin as 



Page 28 The Education of the Emotions 

taught by our theological forefathers, 
or in transmission of evil impulses 
through the germ plasm, or simply 
that all of us have an inborn capacity 
for good and evil, we must agree that 
today we have ample evidence of the 
effect of the emotions of hatred and 
prejudice. The faces of mob leaders 
and participants in the mob, whether 
the occasion be labor union or deseg- 
regation violence or whatnot, accur- 
ately register their emotions of hatred 
and cruelty. We ourselves are not im- 
mune. Except for our better environ- 
ment which afforded good homes, 
schools, and churches, we might be- 
come members of these mobs. 

Some years ago, the head of the 
Department of Psychology of the Uni- 
versity of Kentucky conducted experi- 
ments to measure Palmer Pressure. 
Through appropriate apparatus, he 



The Education of the Emotions Page 29 

measured the rise in blood pressure, 
the moistness of the palms, and other 
signs of emotional excitement which 
occurred under different stimuli. Fa- 
cetiously but not without a certain 
amount of truth, he reported that fir- 
ing a pistol to the rear of an Eastern 
Kentucky mountain boy failed to raise 
his pressure at all. Perhaps, if his ap- 
paratus were attached to me at this 
moment, he would find that I am go- 
ing through the process of whatever 
excitement it takes to make a good 
speech, or so I would hope! 

When I started speaking years 
ago, I had to put both hands behind 
my back and hold hands with myself 
to keep from shaking. This was caused 
by an emotional condition called stage 
fright. It is comforting to note that 
some of the great actors of our day 
still suffer from stage fright. You 



Page 30 The Education or the Emotions 

would never think that Helen Hays, 
superb veteran artist that she is, would 
experience stage fright, but she does. 
I believe younger people today are 
less subject to this. 

Sometimes emotional experiences 
are so vivid, so humiliating, or so 
long-sustained that they have a life- 
long traumatic impact. Some such ex- 
periences, minor in nature, need cause 
us no great concern. One experience 
of no great significance, but illustra- 
tive of what I am talking about, oc- 
curred to me as a graduate student in 
New York City. 

In a plush Fifth Avenue apart- 
ment district I walked into an expen- 
sive fruit store. I had learned one 
thing in New York which I have 
never forgotten, and that is to ask 
how much before I contract to buy. 
And so I asked the proprietor, "Have 



The Education of the Emotions Page 31 

you got an apple for a nickel?" I re- 
member his reply as much for his 
sneering tone as for the words, "Don't 
come in here unless you are going to 
spend more than a nickel." 

I would feel better to this very 
moment if I had hit him. Startled I 
turned on my heel and walked out. 
For several blocks I kept thinking of 
going back. Despite my possible physi- 
cal defeat and arrest in a big, strange 
city, there would have been an im- 
mense satisfaction gained by hitting 
him. The best thing to do about little 
insults of this sort is to forget them 
or to exorcise them by laughing at 
yourself and perhaps by telling a 
friend. 

Through the skillful use of his 
own emotions and with the proper 
stage effects, Adolf Hitler directed a 
whole nation down the path of mad- 



Page 32 The Education of the Emotions 

ness and eventual defeat. For an en- 
tirely different purpose, Billy Sunday 
used to employ his emotions in the 
old days when he was the great saw- 
dust trail evangelist. Billy Graham, 
who may perhaps be called his modern 
successor, is skilled in creating the 
proper setting for thinking about 
things of the next world. Hitler and 
Stalin for evil purposes, and the two 
Billys for good purposes, illustrate 
the use of the emotions in influencing 
tens of thousands of people. 

Not many of us are going to be 
asked or find it possible to direct the 
emotions of thousands of people. But 
each one of us day by day, in college 
or in daily life, in our homes and 
places of work, can contribute some- 
thing to the emotional life of those 
around us and do something to im- 
prove our own. In our efforts, we 



The Education of the Emotions Page 33 

should remember that our job is not to 
suppress or extirpate entirely, but to 
direct and control our emotions, to- 
ward a good purpose and toward the 
achievement of a higher level of emo- 
tional and cultural living. 

To achieve progress toward the 
education of our emotions I offer as 
my first suggestion one which comes 
from Briggs. He used to ask the ques- 
tion. How can one gauge how well 
educated a person is? His answer was 
to the effect that the breadth, depth, 
and variety of interests that one has 
in life determines the extent of his 
education. Frequently I have sug- 
gested to audiences of teachers that 
they try anything once, anything that 
is not "illegal, immoral, or fattening." 

I have gotten into some minor 
trouble exploring interests, but I am 
the better for these experiences, and 



Page 34 The Education of the Emotions 

I commend this practice to you. We 
are wise to admit ignorance when we 
have it and to learn quickly. Some per- 
sons remain ignorant through many 
years, because they are unable or un- 
willing to admit that they do not 
know. 

The cultivation of interests makes 
a person more interesting and more 
likely to have friends. Years ago I 
was state high school supervisor in 
Arkansas and occasionally picked up 
a hitchhiker in the days when this was 
not so dangerous. Just as nature ab- 
hors a vacuum, so I dislike driving 
silently hour after hour with a com- 
panion, and I would wonder out loud 
to my new passenger whether Babe 
Ruth would break his home run rec- 
ord. If I found no knowledge or in- 
terest in that direction, I would sug- 
gest that Gallant Fox might win the 



The Education of the Emotions Page 35 

Derby. Blocked off there, I would uti- 
lize my three years of college Bible 
study and try to get the passenger 
started on the problems involved in 
predestination and free will. Unless 
you and I have some interest in com- 
mon, there is little emotional response 
when we meet each other, and there 
may be a dull void, becoming duller 
by the minute, or a negative reaction 
of disinterest or even dislike. 

It is especially important that 
high school teachers know something 
about baseball and basketball, or 
whatever it is that boys and girls like 
to do. The teacher's desire to learn 
what their interests are and to like 
their interests is an unselfish act on her 
part. Just as a certain minister may 
cause us to contribute sacrificially to 
a cause he advocates, so teachers who 
widen their interests and gain the re- 



Page 36 The Education of the Emotions 

spect and liking of boys and girls may 
bring a stronger motivation to learn 
and to do well. 

Hence I say, especially to teachers 
and to young people in college pre- 
paring for careers dealing with peo- 
ple, early in life cultivate broad in- 
terests, become seriously interested in 
a few things, and cultivate and con- 
tinue your natural curiosity to develop 
many interests rather than a few. As 
a child I learned and still recall 

Live and learn and ask and 

know, 
For that is the way that great 

and wise men grow. 

I do not believe the space age has de- 
stroyed the validity of this bit of 
rhyme. 

May I offer another suggestion, 
particularly to the young: cultivate 



The Education of the Emotions Page 37 

proper emotionalized attitudes toward 
the diverse religions and races which 
we have in the United States. We live 
in what we call a plural culture, 
which is another way of saying that 
our heritage conies from many na- 
tions, many races, many religions. It 
is important, if we can, to avoid the 
age-old hatreds and suspicions of some 
of our European cultures, which hun- 
dreds of thousands of our forefathers 
came to this nation to escape. 

As Superintendent of the Pitts- 
burgh Public Schools, I used to sug- 
gest to high school students that they 
seek out, get to know, and learn to- 
respect members of a different religion 
and race. A typical big Pittsurgh high 
school of 3,000 students included 
Catholics, Jews, and Protestants; 
whites and Negroes; rich and poor; 
sons and daughters of day laborers 



Page 38 The Education of the Emotions 

and of the merchant princes. Yet each 
student had a chance, if he would take 
it, to "learn the grain of reason in 
the opposite point of view." Knowing 
one friendly, reasonable, and compe- 
tent Buddhist, for example, may keep 
me from regarding all Buddhists with 
distrust or complete intolerance. 

As a Protestant, I have regretted 
that our Catholic friends seek to en- 
roll every Catholic child in a Catholic 
school. I wish the Catholics would 
stay in our public schools for a portion 
of their lives to get to know Protest- 
ants and Jews and everybody better 
and that we might get to know them 
better. Those whom we do not know 
we sometimes distrust. 

Part of my initial lack of relig- 
ious prejudice I owe to a small-town 
North Carolina heritage where the 
few Catholics were generally liked 



The Education of the Emotions Pagb 39 

and respected. My attitude toward 
Catholics is all the better because of 
the wonderful Irish Catholic secretary 
who guided me so well when I was 
Superintendent of the Pittsburgh Pub- 
lic Schools. Understanding and help- 
ful to a new superintendent starting 
in a big city, she was wise and kindly 
tolerant. Mrs. Hill and I used to go 
with her to the beautiful midnight 
Christmas mass of her Catholic church 
and afterwards to her home for the 
feast that followed the fast. 

Some of the Jews in the small 
town where I was born attended my 
father's academy and would, on cer- 
tain religious holidays, send us gifts 
of shewbread. There was mutual re- 
spect and in many cases friendship be- 
tween my father and the Jews who 
sent their sons to his school. 

My emotional attitude toward 



Page 40 The Education of the Emotions 

Negroes was strongly conditioned in 
my early childhood days because of 
Camilla and Squire, two faithful re- 
tainers who were kind to a rather 
lonely boy. They were faithful and 
honest. No one then or now could 
make me believe that "all Negroes 
steal" or the other canards sometimes 
hurled at an entire race. Why not? 
Because of Camilla and Squire. 

Whatever be our race or religion, 
we should bear in mind that we are 
either a good or a bad advertisement 
for the entire group to which we be- 
long. 

It was encouraging to read in 
Ralph McGill's column in The Nash- 
ville Tennessean of January 5 that Bill 
Hendricks, the grand dragon of the 
Ku Klux Klan of Florida had re- 
signed, stating that there was no use 
in contending further against the de- 



The Education of the Emotions Page 41 

segregation of schools. He said that 
he was unwilling to bomb buildings 
or people or to destroy property in 
order to keep Negroes from attending 
school with the whites. It is interest- 
ing to note that General Nathan Bed- 
ford Forrest, who founded the orig- 
inal Ku Klux Klan in Tennessee after 
the War Between the States, was also 
the man who disbanded it, denounc- 
ing the evil practices of the bad ele- 
ment which had gotten control. 

Since emotions are to be enjoyed, 
as well as to be feared, please note 
that from emotional commitment, in 
small as well as important things, 
comes enjoyment. On January 2 I 
listened to the Sugar Bowl game, 
emotionally committed to the fortunes 
of Ole Miss. Other persons, emotion- 
ally committed to Rice, undoubtedly 
enjoyed the game, if not the outcome. 



Page 42 The Education of the Emotions 

We enjoy a game more when we want 
one side to win. We had rather watch 
a small high school basketball team 
when we know the boys or for what- 
ever reason want them to win than to 
watch a technically better professional 
game in which we have no interest in 
the outcome. 

This same emotional commit- 
ment applies to as different a subject 
as the enjoyment of opera. What we 
are not up on, we are usually down 
on. Unless we know something about 
opera to give us a feeling of familiar- 
ity or perhaps over the years a pleas- 
ant nostaligia, we usually do not en- 
joy it. In this connection, I would like 
to recommend for your personal li- 
brary and for your enjoyment a recent 
book by the same Thomas H. Briggs, 
entitled Opera and Its Enjoyment. It 
is the exemplification of Dr. Briggs' 



The Education of the Emotions Page 43 

lifelong habit of developing many in- 
terests and bettering his knowledge of 
a few. 

While a graduate student in New 
York City, one Saturday night I was 
seated in the top gallery of the Metro- 
politan Opera House where the in- 
expensive seats are located. I sat by a 
rather ordinary-looking, poorly dress- 
ed, middle-aged Italian who during 
the early part of the opera went to 
sleep. His head dropped down while 
he snored gently. My feeling toward 
him included disapproval and some 
condescension. Why had he come if 
he could not stay awake? 

After a ten-minute nap, he waked 
up bright, cheerful, and refreshed. He 
started a conversation with me about 
the many stars of opera who had 
played the different roles of La Bo- 



Page 44 The Education of the Emotions 

heme and why he preferred a particu- 
lar performer to another one. He told 
me more about La Boheme and great 
performances of it by noted singers 
than I knew about all operas. It was 
a good lesson. I shall never in this 
world or the next look down upon an 
Italian who goes to sleep during an 
opera. 

We teachers should cultivate an 
attitude of absolute fairness toward 
our students, not just being fair but 
making sure that the students realize 
that we are fair. 

In an experiment with a begin- 
ning Latin class I divided the students 
into two sections. On occasion I asked 
the brighter group to grade the papers 
of the entire class that they might 
learn more Latin by having to know 
what was correct. I checked the papers 
also to prevent mistakes or partiality 



The Education of the Emotions Page 45 

and because it was my business to 
do so. 

At the end of each six weeks, I 
prepared and distributed a grade sheet 
with vertical columns labeled A, B, 
C, D, and E with the name of each 
student in the proper place. No com- 
plaints came to the effect that I was 
humiliating Mary Lee, because she 
was the only one in the D group or 
that I was favoring somebody who 
was in the A group. Why? I took par- 
ticular pains to see that each person 
in the class knew how marks were de- 
termined. The feeling on the part of 
the students that by great diligence 
an average student might get into the 
A group and that by reduced effort 
a bright student might drop to the B 
group and the understanding of how 
marks were achieved was one reason 
for the success of this particular class. 



Page 46 The Education of the Emotions 

I have not always succeeded so well. 

When high school students are 
asked to describe the characteristics of 
their best teachers, the trait of fairness 
always stands near the top. Unfairness 
is frequently listed as a characteristic 
of the poorest teacher. The key is to 
develop the feeling among the stu- 
dents that whatever demand by the 
teacher is made is fair and that it must 
be met. 

Parents should build in children 
a feeling of security. Since teachers 
can and do serve in loco parentis, the 
school through the teacher sometimes 
supplies the security missing in the 
home. A feeling lasts a long, long 
time. Perhaps nothing is more reas- 
suring than the backing of parents, 
and next to that the backing of teach- 
ers. 

Another illustration comes from 



The Education of the Emotions Page 47 

The Horse and Buggy Doctor, the 
story of a Kansas general practitioner's 
early struggles and his life as a coun- 
try doctor. He lived at college for 
months chiefly on potatoes secured 
from his father's farm. He comments 
that eating potatoes for weeks on end 
did little lifelong harm to his physical 
make-up, that the stomach of a boy 
is generally tough and will survive 
most any kind of physical shock. But 
the fact that his well-to-do farmer 
father let him live on potatoes caused 
him shame and hurt which he could 
not forget. Even in his sixties the in- 
security caused by his father's early 
attitude is apparent. 

Last October I spent ten days vis- 
iting our Peabody program of ad- 
visory educational services to the Re- 
public of Korea. Dr. Martin Garrison, 
our chief of staff in Seoul, told me of 



Page 48 The Education of the Emotions 

his contrasting experience as a farm 
boy starting to college. When it was 
time for him to enter college, his fath- 
er took him to the small-town bank 
and introduced him to the president. 
He handed the president a written list 
of his assets down to the last cow and 
chicken on the farm, as Dr. Garrison 
tells it. And then he said to the presi- 
dent of the bank, "My son is going 
to enter college, and he will be there 
for four years. I want you to honor his 
check or draft any time up to the full 
amount of my credit." 

Martin Garrison did not write a 
check on his father during his four 
years in college, being resourceful 
enough to earn most of his expenses. 
But you sense the glow of lasting 
pride and good feeling because he 
knew that his father was backing him 
to the limit. What finer gift from a 



The Education of the Emotions Page 49 

father to a son is there than that which 
his father gave him on the eve of his 
departure for college? 

There appeared in a magazine 
not too long ago an account of how 
such a realization sometimes breaks 
in on a boy who, because his father 
is not the demonstrative type, does not 
know that his father really loves him. 
This father got up very early every 
winter morning in order to milk the 
cows and had his teen-age son get up 
at the same time to do his share of the 
milking. It was not too pleasant dur- 
ing the very cold, long winter. His 
father was so businesslike about the 
matter the boy thought he was order- 
ing him around as he would a hired 
man, and he sometimes felt a touch 
of resentment. 

One particularly cold and dis- 
agreeable morning he waked a little 



Page 50 The Education of the Emotions 

earlier than usual and overheard his 
father say to his mother in a nearby 
room, "I really don't want to wake 
John up this morning. It is a great 
hardship on a young boy. I wish I 
could let him sleep." He heard his 
mother's rejoinder, "Yes, I know how 
you feel, but it isn't right that you 
should do all of this work, and it is 
right that John should help you." 
This unplanned revelation to the son 
stood him in good stead throughout 
his life. The realization that his father 
genuinely hated to get him up in the 
morning convinced the boy of his 
father's unspoken love and backing. 

Summary 

I have used anecdotes to illus- 
trate the powerful role that emotions 
play in our existence. Someone has 
characterized intellect as a speck float- 



The Education of the Emotions Page 51 

ing on an ocean of emotion. This may 
be an overstatement, but there is truth 
in its implication. If, for example, we 
could see the emotional conditions of 
the drivers who were behind the 
wheels of the cars that cause the 38,000 
traffic fatalities which occur with dis- 
tressingly regularity every year, we 
would find that many fatalities were 
caused indirectly by the emotional at- 
titude of these drivers. 

The fact that no method works 
with everyone and that most any 
method works with some need not 
deter us from using the best practical 
approaches possible toward educating 
the emotions. 

I have reviewed a few sugges- 
tions made by those who have written 
in this general field without attempt- 
ing a scholarly treatment and to these 



Page 52 The Education of the Emotions 

suggestions have added some of my 
own. 

As long as we live, or at least 
until we reach senility, we can broad- 
en and deepen our interests and in- 
crease their variety, and in so doing 
add a positive base for emotional at- 
titudes. 

We may learn to know and re- 
spect those of other races and religions 
and to reconsider seriously from time 
to time our prejudices. 

We may enjoy our emotions, even 
those which seem minor but which 
add so much to daily living. 

We teachers by a continual atti- 
tude of fairness toward students and 
by successful efforts to have students 
understand our fairness may exem- 
plify a good emotional attitude to- 
ward others. 

We as parents and teachers may 



The Education of the Emotions Page 53 

contribute to the emotional security 
of children by backing them whole- 
heartedly. 

We may weigh carefully the well 
known fact that learning is rarely 
single. 

In the recent report of the Presi- 
dent's Commission on National Goals, 
we find this concluding word. 

The American citizen in the 
years ahead ought to devote a 
larger portion of his time and 
energy directly to the solution of 
the nation's problems . . . Above 
all, Americans must demonstrate 
in every aspect of their lives the 
fallacy of the purely selfish atti- 
tude--the materialistic ethic. Our 
faith is that man lives, not by 
bread alone, but by self-respect, 
by regard for other men, by con- 



Page 54 The Education of the Emotions 

victions of right and wrong, by 
strong religious faith . . . Man has 
never been an island unto him- 
self. The shores of his concern 
have expanded from his neigh- 
borhood to his nation, from his 
nation to his world. Free men 
have always known the necessity 
for responsibility. The basic goal 
for each American is to achieve a 
sense of responsibility as broad as 
his worldwide concerns and as 
compelling as the dangers and 
opportunities he confronts. 

I believe it was Addison who said 
that man can only choose to deserve 
well of fate, that it is not given to him 
to determine what shall be his fate. 
This may apply to our emotional at- 
titude towards the future today. I am 
sorry for the scare stories about bombs 



The Education of the Emotions Page 55 

and the bad general state of the world. 
True enough, our chances of blowing 
ourselves up are better than they have 
ever been. I think, however, that we 
should rather worry about whether 
we are worth saving from the bomb, 
whether we as a people deserve better 
things of fate. Better this than to wor- 
ry constantly and do nothing. 

We all favor the wise steps of 
preparation against disaster which our 
government takes. In one of my early 
textbooks there was a picture of a New 
England Puritan with blunderbuss on 
his shoulder and Bible under his arm, 
walking with his wife and children 
through the snow to the church. He 
meant to have peace and religious 
worship, even if he had to fight. 

For at least a generation or more 
we shall live in a very uncertain world. 
We need all the more to educate our 



Page 56 The Education of the Emotions 

feelings and those of others, to have 
faith in the Supreme Creator of the 
universe, and to believe that we shall 
continue to live with some purpose 
and distinction here on earth. 

I am hoping that our new Presi- 
dent and his new administration will 
give us a vision of greatness. Such a 
vision was given by Mr. George Pea- 
body in 1867 when he established the 
first philanthropic educational foun- 
dation in history. I have always en- 
joyed quoting from his letter in which 
he says, "I give you, gentlemen, one 
million dollars . . . And now looking 
beyond my stay on earth, as may be 
permitted to one who has passed the 
limit of threescore and ten years, I see 
our country united and prosperous, 
richer and more powerful than ever 
before." 

Such was the vision of a man be- 



The Education of the Emotions Page 57 

yond seventy years of age who was 
writing just after the bitterest war 
any nation can have, a civil war. His 
prophecy has been realized. We need 
another Peabody vision with its faith 
and devotion to fit the needs of an- 
other century. 

Is it not incumbent upon us to 
accept the responsibilities which go 
with our great privileges? We may 
not know precisely what these respon- 
sibilities are, or how best we can serve 
the underdeveloped nations, how 
much materiel and food we should 
send to those who are starving or 
weak; but I do pray that we may have 
the kind of leadership which will en- 
able us to discharge well our part. 
Let us, as Addison said, deserve well 
of fate. 

With such an emotional attitude 
our nation, under God, may achieve 



Page 58 The Education of the Emotions 

greatness and we and our children 
may live to see a great future of which 
the past is but prologue.